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Translate the following word

Translate the following sentences into Russian. Translate the following words and word combinations or find Russian equivalents

Translate the following words and word combinations or find Russian equivalents.

Exercises

Essential Vocabulary

allot v — предоставлять, выделять;

bonus pack— набор, содержащий дополнительные товары в качестве премии, за которые не взимается плата

brand n — торговая марка

brandingn — снабжение товара торговой маркой

catch the eye— попасться на глаза, привлечь внимание

check out v — подсчитать стоимость всех покупок и выбить чек (в магазине самообслуживания)

check-outп = check-out area— касса (место, где произво­дятся расчеты в магазине самообслуживания)

contest n — конкурс, соревнование coupon n — премиальный купон (определенное количество купонов дает покупателю право на вещевую премию)

display allowances — скидка (магазину) для компенсации расходов на организацию выставки товара

display materials— материалы для выставки и рекламы то­варов (рекламные щиты, плакаты, фотографии и др.)

formatn — правила игры, проведения соревнований

game slipn — игровой купон

incentive n — побуждение, стимул

inducev — побуждать, склонять, убеждать

merchandising n — искусство сбыта; усилия, необходимые для сбыта товара

objective n — цель

packaging n — упаковка

pick overv — отбирать (лучшие экземпляры); выбирать

point-of-sale materials = POSmaterials — материалы для выставки и рекламы товаров (рекламные щиты, плака­ты, фотографии и др.) на месте продажи товара

premiumn — премия, приз

pricing promotion— ценовое стимулирование

pushn — настойчивая реклама; проталкивание, раскручи­вание (какого-л. товара и т. п.)

push money— деньги на стимулирование сбыта

run competitions — проводить соревнования

samplen — образец

sampling n — стимулирование продаж путем распростране­ния бесплатных образцов товара

shelf space— пространство, выделенное для размещения товара на полках магазина

shopping basket— корзина для отбора товаров (в магазине самообслуживания), покупательская корзина

trading stamps— бумажные марки с объявленной стоимос­тью (накопление некоторого количества марок дает по­купателю право бесплатного приобретения товара из ассортимента того магазина, где получены марки)

1. range of activity

2. to encourage customers

3. promotion efforts

4. buy two and get one free

5. brand awareness

6. to increase shelf space

7. pricing promotion

8. point-of-sale materials

9. sales meeting

10. monetary incentive

1.The objective of most sales promotion efforts is to increase sales.

2. The packaging of products has undergone a revolution in recent years.

3. This method is often called the ‘silent salesman’ or ‘selling through technique’.

4. The prizes to be won are very attractive.

5. The best or prime selling spots in a supermarket are the check-out areas.

3. Fill the gaps in the sentences below with the words and expressions from the box. There are two expressions, which you don’t need to use.

game slips, brand awareness, sales campaign, shelf space, free samples, display allowances, special offer, increasing sales, packaging and design

1. Sales promotion is aimed at____________of a new prod­uct by a sales campaign persuading customers to buy.

2. Sales promotion efforts are aimed at increasing ____________of the product.

3. The key elements of _______________ include colour, size, display and brand of trademark.

4._______________are distributed free with a purchase to encourage customers to purchase more frequently and more consistently.

5. One means of launching a new product is to provide ___________of it to the customers.

6. Display allowances are offered to dealers to feature cer­tain brands or to allot them more_________________.

7._________________ are special monetary incentives for dealers to stimulate greater push of the brand.

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Translate the following word combinations.

Killed lime, cable line, to keep away from moisture, plastic window light, waterproof fabric, index of corrosion, fire – fighting equipment, material debris, water supply

angle-угол

assemble-составлять

attic space-аттическое пространство

back hoe-экскаватор, канавокопатель с обратной лопатой

basement (BSMT)-подвал, основание, фундамент

beam-балка, брус

brick (BRK)-кирпич

brick facing-кирпичная облицовка ( накладка )

budget-бюджет

building (bldg)-здание

cantilevered section-консольный отдел; заделанный одним концом

carpenting-ковровая олицовка

channel-канал, канава

cinderblock wall-блок из шлакобетона, шлакоблок

compressibility — сжимаемость

concrete-бетон

conduit-трубопровод

counter-счётчик, счёты; гибкий раскос фермы

crane-кран

crawl space-полупроходное техническое подполье (высотой до 1,5м), полупрох. канал

crew-бригада

dampness-сырость, влажность

damp-влажность, сырость

debris-строительный мусор, осколки, обломки

drainage system-дренажная система

drywall-стена с сухой поверхностью

duct work-трубопроводная работа

fascia –валик, сандрик

floating slab-затирка поверхности плиты

foam — пена

framing-1.каскад, рама, сруб;2.обрамление проёма ( дверного )

gable-щипец, фронтон

grading-земляные работы, планирование ( грунта )

gravel-гравий

hail on-прибивать

header-водосточная труба

hole-яма, углубление

installation-установка

insulation-изоляция

interface-поверхность раздела, взаимосвязь

interlock-блокировка, запирание

intricate-сложный

joist-несущая балка (перекрытия, настила, пола, крыши )

lot-строительный участок

mason (bricklayer)- каменщик

pad-опорная плита

peak-вершина

perforated pipe-перфорированная труба

plastic stripping-пластичное нанесение полос

plumbing-водопроводно-канализационная и кровельная работа

plywood (PLWD)-фанера

porch-портик, веранда

pressure – treated lumber — приводимый в действие давлением пиломатериал

punch –пуансон, пробойник

ridge –конек, ребро (крыши)

rigid foam board-жесткий пенопласт

rigidity-жесткость

roofing-кровля, покрытие крыши

septic system-условия переработки анаэробными бактериями

septic tanks-перегниватель, септиктент

sewer pipe-канализационная труба

sheathing-листовая обшивка

shingle-галька, булыжник

siding-боковая обшивка, облицовка ( досками, листовым материалом )

sillplate-лежень, опорная подкладка

site preparation-осуществить инженерную подготовку территории

slab-плита, панель

soffit-потолок

stack-стояк

staple-скоба

steel reinforcing bar-стальная арматура

subconstractor-субподрядчик

tape-рулетка

tar paper-деготь, смола, гудрон

termiteprone areaподверженная территория к термиту

to bind-завязывать, заедать, затвердевать

to cure-выдерживать, пропаривать ( бетонные блоки )

to dig-копать, рыть

to dry in-высушивать

to embed-покрывать. заделывать

to extend-наполнять

to freeze-замораживать

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to handle-транспортировать, подавать, управлять

to hook up to sewer-установить канализационную трубу

to insulate-изолировать

to involve-включать

to level-выравнивать, производить планировку ( грунта )

to pour-бетонировать

to sandwich-помещать посередине

to slope-устраивать откос

to span-перекладывать (пролет ); натягивать (проволоку)

to spread out the load-растягивать груз

tremendous-огромный

trench-котлован; борозда; траншея

trim-обкладка, отделка

truck-грузовик, тележка

truss-ферма (сквозная, решетчатая, стропильная)

underlayment-опорная поверхность, подстилка, стяжка

vapour barrier-пар низкого давления; пары

vent pipe –вентиляционная труба

width-ширина

История архитектуры.

Вариант 1

GOTHIC CATHEDRALS.

The architecture of the central Middle Ages was termed Gothic during the Renaissance because of its association with the barbarian north. Now this term is used to describe the important international style in most countries of Europe from the early 12 th century to the advent of the Renaissance in the 15 th century.

At the technical level Gothic architecture is characterized by the ribbed vault, the pointed arch, and the flying buttress.

One of the earliest building in which these techniques were introduced was the abbey of Saint-Denis, Paris.

The proportions are not large, but the skills and precision with which the vaulting is managed and the subjective effect of the undulating chain windows around the perimeter have given the abbey its traditional claim to the title “first Gothic building”.

In English architecture, this style is subdivided into Early English, Decorative and Perpendicular. The most influential building in Early English Gothic style was the choir of Canterbury cathedral. The building retains a passage at a clerestory level – an Anglo-Norman feature that remained standard in English architecture well into the 13 th century. Attached colonettes became extremely popular with English architects, particularly because of the large supplies of purbeckmarble, which gave any elevation a special coloristic character. This is obvious at Salisbury cathedral (begun 1220), but one of the richest examples of the effect is in the nave of Lincoln cathedral (begun 1225).

English architects for a long time retained a liking for heavy surface decoration: thus, when Rayonnanttracery designs were imported, they were combined with the existing repertoire of collonettes, attached shafts, and vault ribs. The result which could be extraordinary dense– for instance, in the east choir(begun 1256) at Lincoln cathedral – has been called the English Decorative style (1280 – 1350).

The architectural affects achieved were more inventive generally than those of contemporary continental building.

English Gothic came to an end with the final flowering of the Perpendicular style (1350-1550). It was characterized by vertical emphasis in structure and by elaborate fan vaults. The first major surviving statement of Perpendicular style is probably the choir of Gloucester cathedral.

Gothic was essentially the style of the Catholic countries of Europe. It was also carried to Cyprus, Malta, Syria, and Palestine by the Crusaders and their successors in the Mediterranean. The forms that were developed within the style on a regional basis were often of great beauty and complexity. They were used for secularbuilding, as well as for cathedrals, churches, and monasteries.

By the Gothic survival is meant the survival of Gothic forms, particularly in provincial traditional building. It developed after the advent of the Renaissance and into the 17 th century. It should be differed from the Gothic Revival (Neo- Gothic) in the 18 th – the 19 th centuries.

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Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian

If you are unfortunate enough to experience a breakdown, pay attention to the warning signs, to damage wheel ram, remote areas, to raise a bonnet, hazard lights, partially opened window, briefly exiting your car, to accept offers, to rely on, to be wary, to take valuables, to carry bulky goods, to conceal valuables, the occupants of the house, call him of my behalf, vegetation, which might provide cover for an attacker, to hide in basements, to park near ramp, a steady stream of activity, vicinity, suspicious people, loitering children, suspicious people, lurking nearby, to bend over bonnet.

Translate the following words and word combinations into English.

Вас преследуют, похожее место, предостерегающие знаки, пешеход, спущенная шина, обод колеса, предлагать помощь, разговаривать через частично открытое окно, кто-то появился на дороге, остаться в машине, открыть, капот, включить габаритные огни, подвергать риску, схема, отдаленные места, принять решение, полагаться на других, забрать ценности, подойти сзади, подозрительные люди, красивые окрестности, слоняющиеся без дела люди, не прячься, поток, уклон, подвал, высокие стены, ,от моего имени, постучать в дверь, громоздкие грузы, растительность, обитатели замка, прикрытие для нападающих, быть бдительным , лестницы.

Read and write true (T) or false (F) about the following statements.

1. Drivers must always be careful and attentive.

2. Suspicious persons lurking nearby can open your car in your absence.

3. When putting packages in the boot, don’t bend over with your head and body inside the lid of your boot.

4. Drivers must always be wary.

5. You can leave valuables in the car and not to worry.

6. Define the main idea of the texts:

-: Avoid parking in an unknown place

-: It’s safely to stop in an unknown area to ask help

-: Never lock your car

+: Parking, be always wary and attentive

Reported speech.

1. They ordered: “Remain in the car.”

2. The policeman said: “Raise your bonnet.”

3. The director of a company said: “Send a message on my behalf.”

4. The neighbor complained: “I can’t rely on my driver.”

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5. The occupant asked: “Who knocked?”

6. The driver called to the service station and said: “My lorry broke. I need help.”

7. They answered us: “We don’t carry bulky goods.”

8. He warned me: “Be wary about being invited inside.”

9. My friend asked me: “Do you have a spare tyre?”

10. Passengers exclaimed: “Why do you move so slowly?”

11. He asked us: “Don’t put the hazard lights on.”

12. The passer-by didn’t understand: “Why was the bonnet of this car open?”

13. He asked me: “Where have you parked my car?”

14. The driver warned us: “Take your valuables with you.”

15. He asked his neighbor: “Who lurked behind the car?”

16. We answered them: “The letter was written on our behalf.”

17. The Englishman exclaimed: “Why don’t your drivers follow the Traffic Rules?”

18. The pedestrian warned us: “Be wary on the crossroads!”

19. The deputy director asked us: “Who called on my behalf?”

20. The policeman warned me: “Pay attention to the warning signs next time!”

IV. Road safety.

Read and translate the text.

Road safety.

1. According to police records at least one person is killed daily on Delhi roads in India. Every year several thousand people are killed on the roads in Great Britain. Every year between one and two hundred thousand people are injured. These people are killed or injured in road accidents.

2. If you are in England and if you listen to the 8 o’clock news from the radio, you will often hear news of road accidents. You may hear something like this:

«On Monday evening, at about twenty minutes to ten a cyclist was knocked down by a car in High Street. The cyclist has since died from I his injuries. Will anyone who saw the accident please telephone New Scotland Yard.»

3. Great attention is being paid to the problem of road safety in all countries. Accidents often happen if people don’t obey the rules hat help to make the road safe. If everybody obeys the rules, the roads rill be much safer. How can we make the roads safer? Here are some examples of how accidents happened.

4. The young woman was out shopping. She had a shopping basket on her left arm. She was ready to go home. She saw her bus stopping on the other side of the street. She forgot the safety rules. She was in a hurry, so she ran out into the street. She wanted to get across quickly and catch her bus. At that moment the car hit her and knocked her down. The woman was taken to hospital. The doctors did everything that was possible, but she died three hours later. It was the woman’s fault. She did not obey the traffic rules.

5. The next story is about the boy who was riding a bicycle. Today he has only one leg and he will never ride a bicycle again. This accident took place in a busy shopping centre. The boy was riding a bicycle carrying a heavy box under his right arm. It was wrong thing to do. The boy had only one hand to control his bicycle. The boy was not killed, he was taken to hospital and the doctors had to cut his right leg off. It was the boy’s fault. It was not the fault of the driver of the car.

6. In Great Britain traffic keeps to the left: cars, motor-vans, buses and cyclists must all keep to the left side of the road. In the USSR as well as in most countries traffic keeps to the right.

7. Before crossing the road, stop and look both ways. Then if you consider that the road is clear, that there is nothing coming it is safe to cross the road. If you see that small children or very old people are waiting to cross the road, you are to help them to cross the road in safe­ty. We must teach children to cross the road safely. We must always give them a good example. Small children must not play in the streets.

8. There are many things that drivers can do to make the road safe. But unfortunately they do not always obey the traffic rules. For exam­ple, in Delhi it is quite normal for a driver at night to see a car going along the wrong side of a divided road straight at him. The taxi-drivers often horrify people passing at full speed turning into another road sec­onds before an oncoming bus. Most cyclists in Delhi do not obey the traffic rules. Very often they pass the red traffic lights as if they did not see them at all. When a driver goes past such a cyclist he shouts at him: «Did you say good-buy to your wife this morning for good?» Another asks: «What do you think, this is your father’s road?»

9. The drivers must obey traffic rules. They must be careful at cross­roads. They must drive slowly when turning into another road. A driver must not drive if he is tired or ill. A man who drives after drinking beer or wine is usually a dangerous driver. His own and the life of others may be in danger. So if you are a driver or going to become one, do not forget about all these things.

Translate the following word-combinations into Russian.

Risk management; to achieve an appropriate balance between trade facilitation and regulatory control; routine “gateway” checks; varying degrees of sophistication and success; too much of one makes it difficult to achieve the other; the flow of legitimate trade; to apply a set of management procedures; to verify the movements of goods and passengers; the establishment of documentary controls and physical inspection procedures; technological advances; a more disciplined and structured approach to managing risk; to jeopardize the attainment of stated objectives.

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Find English equivalents in the text.

Управление рисками; препятствовать организации в достижении целей; несоблюдение таможенного законодательства; распознавание, анализ, оценка и уменьшение рисков; разработка мер борьбы с контрабандой; тем не менее; в последнее время; возрастающая сложность, скорость и объем внешней торговли; создать карту рисков; быть нацеленным на более успешное достижение своих целей.

Form pairs of synonyms.

Jeopardy, affect, attempt, prevent, vulnerability, ensure, verify, fundamental, risk, advance, volume, interfere (with), implement, check, breach, attainment, influence, amount, progress, basic, achievement, guarantee, carry out, effort, weakness, violation.

Find in the text the antonyms of the following words.

Compliance, illegitimate, exclude, impossible, success, old, slightly, easiness.

Match the words with their definitions.

1“gateway” checkabalance or compromise
2sophisticationbreducing the severity or painfulness
3physical inspectioncput sb/sth into a situation of danger or failure
4geardexperience and wisdom
5trade-offecustoms inspection of ingoing/outgoing passengers or goods
6mitigationfadapt to a new situation
7jeopardizegmaterial examination of vehicles, cargo or passengers by customs officers

Define the part of speech of the words in bold type. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. Customs authorities are now applying the principles of risk management.

2. One of the principal tasks of the customs is the application of risk management.

3. Customs risks include the potential for noncompliance with the customs laws.

4. There are always the potential breaches of customs laws.

5. Basic risk management has always been fundamental to customs operations.

6. The fundamentals of the customs theory and practice must be observed.

7. Customs officers and managers should be well-informed about the basics of risk management.

8. All this is to be done without big rises in the basic level of taxation.

9. The personnel of an organization are the people who work for it.

10. It is only your personal opinion, nobody else’s.

11. Form compound words using the prefix anti-.Follow the model. Make up sentences with some of the words.

Model: smuggling – anti-smuggling

Ageing, constitutional, corruption, fraud, globalist, government, piracy, smoking, social, virus.

12. Fill in the gaps using one of the options: a) other; b) the other; c) others, d) the others, e) another. Explain your choices.

1. I don’t know any so self-disciplined person … than you.

2. We always think every … man’s job is easier than our own.

3. I heard a familiar voice on … end of the line.

4. The two countries do little trade with one … .

5. Think of . don’t be so self-centered.

6. He believes prices will not rise by more than … 4 per cent.

7. I called her … day.

8. The customs authorities had no … choice than to take formal action.

9. In … words, the problem that deserved professional discussion was risk management.

10. The customs officer was the only one on duty, … were gone.

Use appropriate prepositions where necessary.

1. Drug traffickers violate customs laws … an effort to make fast money.

2. The organization stresses the need to maintain … possible risks.

3. The captain abandoned … the passengers and the sinking ship.

4. To apply … the border crossing rules is every passenger’s obligation.

5. They are going to refer … the Examination Board.

6. Noncompliance … the customs regulations is punishable.

7. The flow … narcotics and counterfeit goods must be reduced.

8. The model takes … account a given database management system.

9. Price hikes will affect … us all.

10. Hard work is fundamental … success.

11. … recent times European nations controlled almost the whole world.

12. The economic boom was fueled … easy credit.

13. The Customs has adopted … new risk management rules.

14. Education should be geared … the students’ needs and abilities.

14. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the meanings of the underlined words in bold type.

1. The cost of the alcohol duty varies according to the amount of wine in the bottle.

2. Prices vary from ten to fifteen dollars.

3. People’s opinions vary with age.

4. He had a varied career.

5. The company has been working with varied success.

6. Events can depend on constant and variable conditions.

7. There are too many variables involved.

8. The products we sell are many and various.

9. His various achievements are most impressive.

10. The device has a variety of uses.

11. Variety is the spice of life.

Render the text in English.

Управление рисками

Управление рисками – это процесс принятия и выполнения управленческих решений, направленных на снижение вероятности возникновения неблагоприятного результата и минимизацию возможных потерь, вызванных его реализацией.

Современная экономическая наука представляет риск как вероятное событие, в результате наступления которого могут произойти только нейтральные или отрицательные последствия.

Цель риск-менеджмента в сфере экономики – повышение конкурентоспособности хозяйствующих субъектов (business entities) с помощью защиты от реализации чистых рисков.

Базовыми методами риск-менеджмента являются отказ от риска, снижение, передача и принятие.

Риск-инструментарий значительно шире. Он включает в себя политические, организационные, правовые, экономические, социальные инструменты, причем риск-менеджмент как система допускает возможность одновременного применения нескольких методов и инструментов риск-управления. Наиболее часто применяемым инструментом риск-менеджмента является страхование. Страхование предполагает передачу ответственности за возмещение предполагаемого ущерба сторонней организации (страховой компании).

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